يخطط أوليفر، وألفي، وإيمي وديزي للذهاب إلى مهرجان موسيقى في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع عندما تتصل صوفي من النمسا وتخبرهم عن فكرة رائعة.

We use words called conjunctions, like and, or, but, because and although, to join two parts of sentences. Conjunctions can be used to give more information, give alternatives, give reasons, give results or give unexpected information.

We use and, or and but to connect two parts of sentences which are similar in grammatical status.

Do you want chocolate, strawberry or vanilla? (joining words)
Amy's dad is taking us on Saturday morning, and he's offered to bring us home again on Sunday. (joining clauses)

We use and  for adding information, or for giving alternatives and but for unexpected or different information. 

I'm OK for food, dance  and  music, and I'm having a wonderful time.
There's a reggae band from Jamaica or a Russian electro-pop group on the other stage.
She’d like to go but she can’t.

Can we use these words at the beginning of a sentence?

We don’t usually use conjunctions to start sentences when we’re writing, but people do when they’re speaking.

Or when they’re chatting on the internet?

Yes. There are a lot more conjunctions which we use to connect one clause with another clause. For example: because, for giving reasons, so, for talking about results or purposes, and although, for unexpected or different information. 

I'd like to see that Irish band, because Celtic music is pretty cool.
(the second clause explains the reason Alfie wants to see the Irish band)

Although he doesn’t like camping, he goes to lots of music festivals.
(the speaker thinks it’s unusual to go to music festivals if you don’t like camping)

... we'll be there by 12. Although we have to put up our tents too.
(the information in the second sentence is different to, and contrasts, the information in the first sentence)

It's one of those cars for seven people, so there's plenty of room.
(the second clause shows the result of the first clause)

We need to arrive early so (that) we can get a good place.
(the second clause shows the purpose of the first clause; that is optional)

With that although sentence, can you put the clauses in a different order?

Yes, both orders are possible.

He goes to lots of music festivals, although he doesn’t like camping.

Can you also say “even though he doesn’t like camping”?

Yes, that means the same thing. There are a lot more conjunctions, but that’s enough for today.

But …

No “buts”. It’s better to look at a small amount at a time …

So that I can remember it?

Exactly.

 

Language level: 

Discussion

Do you think you would enjoy camping at a music festival? Why? Why not? Tell us what you think!

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