Conjunctions: and, or, but, so, because and although

Conjunctions: and, or, but, so, because and although


As you watch the video, look at the examples of conjunctions (and, or, but, because, so, although). They are in red in the subtitles. Then read the conversation below to learn more. Finally, do the grammar exercises to check you understand, and can use, conjunctions correctly.


Daisy, Amy, Oliver and Alfie are planning a weekend at a music festival when Sophie calls from Austria with a great idea. 

We use words called conjunctions, like and, or, but, because and although, to join two parts of sentences. Conjunctions can be used to give more information, give alternatives, give reasons, give results or give unexpected information.

We use and, or and but to connect two parts of sentences which are similar in grammatical status.

Do you want chocolate, strawberry or vanilla? (joining words)
Amy's dad is taking us on Saturday morning, and he's offered to bring us home again on Sunday. (joining clauses)

We use and  for adding information, or for giving alternatives and but for unexpected or different information. 

I'm OK for food, dance  and  music, and I'm having a wonderful time.
There's a reggae band from Jamaica or a Russian electro-pop group on the other stage.
She’d like to go but she can’t.

Can we use these words at the beginning of a sentence?

We don’t usually use conjunctions to start sentences when we’re writing, but people do when they’re speaking.

Or when they’re chatting on the internet?

Yes. There are a lot more conjunctions which we use to connect one clause with another clause. For example: because, for giving reasons, so, for talking about results or purposes, and although, for unexpected or different information. 

I'd like to see that Irish band, because Celtic music is pretty cool.
(the second clause explains the reason Alfie wants to see the Irish band)

Although he doesn’t like camping, he goes to lots of music festivals.
(the speaker thinks it’s unusual to go to music festivals if you don’t like camping)

... we'll be there by 12. Although we have to put up our tents too.
(the information in the second sentence is different to, and contrasts, the information in the first sentence)

It's one of those cars for seven people, so there's plenty of room.
(the second clause shows the result of the first clause)

We need to arrive early so (that) we can get a good place.
(the second clause shows the purpose of the first clause; that is optional)

With that although sentence, can you put the clauses in a different order?

Yes, both orders are possible.

He goes to lots of music festivals, although he doesn’t like camping.

Can you also say “even though he doesn’t like camping”?

Yes, that means the same thing. There are a lot more conjunctions, but that’s enough for today.

But …

No “buts”. It’s better to look at a small amount at a time …

So that I can remember it?



Total votes: 803


Language level: 



Do you think you would enjoy camping at a music festival? Why? Why not? Tell us what you think!


schoolofenglish's picture

I love going to music festivals because I like rock music and I have fun with my friends. However I don't like camping because I don't sleep very well. Sleeping on the ground is very uncomfortable.

28 users have voted.
donya123's picture

Of course I would enjoy to go to a festival. Its a lot of fan to dance are sing while concert.Its also fun to make new friends and spent a whole night at outside.

27 users have voted.
pierina's picture

yes I do, because I like camping actually I'd like go to a music festival like tomorrowland, unfortunately there are not any festivals in Ecuador .

51 users have voted.
nandosc9's picture

Really, I would like if is a rock music festival, because I can listen a lot of new rock bands and meet new people who have the same tastes than me. Another music festival to which I would like to go is "Tomorrowland"
Tomorrowland is a electronic music festival that is celebrated in several countries in the world; I like some of the electronic music, but, for what I've seen, the lights, the basses, the performances, and the audiovisual effects are the best.

55 users have voted.
sashvitha's picture

.Yeah i would love to enjoy camping together with music and food from all over the world.Lot of fun,
I love music and I do believe music is a heavenly thing which take me out of this world and give a peaceful mind.

123 users have voted.
tajana's picture

My neighbours,my brother and I every summer camping in my garden. It’s really funny, every morning we are eating breakfast together.

136 users have voted.
ShaiqGenius's picture

I really feel very happy. Because students` comments make me very happy! All of them are hard-working... They interested in different topics....I am also a student in Azerbaijan. :)

173 users have voted.