There is / There are and It

There is / There are and It

Instructions: 

As you watch the video, look at the examples of there is, there are and it. They are in red in the subtitles. Then read the conversation below to learn more. Finally, do the grammar exercises to check you understand, and can use, there is, there are and it correctly.

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Sophie is working in Spain this week to write about the local fiestas. She phones Oliver to tell him all about it.

We often use there + to be and It…as a subject but they do not refer to any object. There is / are is used to introduce a topic, or say that something exists. It … is often used for the weather, time and distance.

Can I have some examples of there is / there are, please?

There's so much happening.
Is there anything much going on at the moment?
There are two new students in our class.
There aren't any good football matches on TV this week.

What about other tenses? Is there is / there are only used in the present?

No, you can change the tense.

There were fire-breathing dragons in the streets.
Were there any accidents?
I think there'll be loads of people at the festival.
There haven't been many entries for the competition.

I'm a bit confused about when to use there is / there are and when to use it or they.
 

Have a look at these sentences. The topic is introduced with there is / are, then it and they refer back to something already mentioned.

There's a good film on channel 2. It starts at 10 o'clock.    (It = the film)
There are two new students in our class. They're from Brazil. (They = the students)

So you can't use it or they as subjects in the first sentences?
 

No, you can't.

OK, but you can start some sentences with it, can't you? Like, 'It's very hot today.'
 

Yes. We use it for talking about the weather, time, distance and days and dates.

It's warm and sunny
What time is it? > It's only 6 o'clock
How far is it to the shopping centre? > It's three km to my house from here. It's a long way to walk.
It's Saturday tomorrow, great!
What's the date? It's November 18th.

Phew! That's quite a lot of uses!
 

Yes, and there's more. We also use it + to be + adjective + infinitive clauses. In these sentences it refers forwards to the infinitive clause.

It's nice to meet you.
It's hard to hear anything with this noise.
Was it easy to understand him?
It'll be difficult to find the venue without a map.

OK, that's enough for one grammar snack. It's time to go.
 

That's a good it expression!

It's very good of you to say so!
 

Yes, it really is time to stop now! Bye!

 

Total votes: 689

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Discussion

Are there any unusual local celebrations where you live? Tell us about them here.

Comments

Amehsiri's picture
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3x

I would say the weirdest Swedish tradition is a thing called "Kräftskiva" where you meet with a group of people just to eat crayfish together. Usually it's celebrated in late August and you've been fishing the crayfish together as well before you sit down to eat them. It must look very strange from the outside when we eat tons of red crayfish, drink shots of liquor and sing strange little songs all night long. There's even decorations especially for this feast so we sweds can glorify the dumbest things. It's a nice little tradition though!

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20 users have voted.
A_Tree's picture
39x
3x

I live in Sweden, and as most people already mentioned, the most odd holiday here is probably midsummer, when we celebrate the summer solstice, the longest day of the year. We dance around a giant cross covered in flowers, singing different songs to go along. We usually eat herring, just as we do on pretty much every other Swedish holiday in existance.

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16 users have voted.
00joh03's picture
41x
3x

I think that the weirdest unique celebration we have here in Sweden would be Midsummer. Originally, the vikings used to sacrifice to the gods on this day so that this years harvest would be good. Since then it has evolved quite a bit. Maybe the biggest change is that we don't sacrifice people anymore, as that would be highly illegal. We also dress a pole in different flowers and things and then dance around it. It's not only the children that do this though, grown men do it to, but that might have something to do with the fact that it is quite popular to drink during this holiday.

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18 users have voted.
GustafBen's picture
142x
8x

As a lot of people before me have mentioned we celebrate a very weird holiday called midsummer we're we dance around a pole and drink snaps. We also celebrate chrismas a little odd in comparison to other countries. We celebrate on christmas eve intead of christmas day.

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16 users have voted.
00kaj03's picture
42x
3x

As many people have already mentioned Sweden's most unusual celebration (midsummer), I would like to talk about the typical Swedish Christmas celebrations. At first glance, they may seem normal, but if you look deeper you will notice that they are, in fact, rather unique.

To begin with, Christmas is not celebrated on Christmas Day but on Christmas Eve. Therefore, the excuse of Santa delivering the Christmas presents during the night does not work and instead a family member (or, in some cases, a neighbour or friend of the family) always has to sneak out of the house, dress up as Santa, grab a sack with Christmas presents, knock on the door and then hand out the Christmas presents to each and every person. At least that is how it worked at my family's Christmas celebrations back in the time when we still had someone in the family who believed in Santa.

Anyway, a couple of hours before the faux Santa knocks on the door, it is also tradition for everyone to gather around the TV and watch a special Christmas-themed (poorly Swedish dubbed) Donald Duck programme. Yes, it is exactly as random as it sounds, but we Swedes are actually really fond of it and it would not feel like Christmas if we did not watch it.

Well, there you have it; a very unusual celebration all the way from Sweden!

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18 users have voted.
Smil73's picture
39x
4x

In Sweden we have plenty of strange and weird celebrations. But we have this thing called easter, i think it´s the strangest one. We used to celebrate this tradition by not eating the 40 days before easter, and when easter finally came, people celebrated and ate eggs. Nowadays we still eat these very well-tasting eggs, no not those old ones, new ones. We put "påskris" here and there in our houses, it´s usually birch twigs with collared feathers. We also dress our children in strange clothes, give them a broom, and call them "påskkärringar", directly translated to "easter bitches". And we send them out to knock on peoples doors to wish these people a "happy easter". Really strange tradition...

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16 users have voted.
Alvv's picture
139x
8x

We have many weird traditions in Sweden. On Midsommar we make a cross out of two big sticks and dress it up in flowers and leaves. We then eat strawberries, pickled herring, eggs, meatballs and a lot of other food whilst singing songs. After that we dance the small frogs and 'this is how we walk around the juniper berry bush', among others. It's a great holiday and it happens once every year.

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14 users have voted.
goppis1337's picture
140x
8x

Here in Sweden we have many strange celebrations not to talk about midsummer. We celebrate the day of the cinamon bun. Everybody just bake cinamon buns and eat them. At my local store they sold newly baked big cinamon buns for just five SEK. I think I bought like ten buns that day.

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14 users have voted.
icecream1337's picture
43x
8x

A lot of the traditions we have in Sweden, are celebrated in other parts of the world as well. Like christmas and easter. But traditions as Valborg and Midsummer, I do not believe are celebrated in other countries. But what do I know? On Valborg, we set a pile of wood and branches on fire and watch them, burn. I am not sure why we are doning this, but it is fun! Midsummer is even weirder. We dance around a pole and sing songs, and eat a lot of food. Food such as baltic herring is not one of my favourites. But other than that it is a great holiday we spend with friends and family, and eat a lot of amazing and delicous food.

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14 users have voted.
pepparkaka's picture
38x
3x

A tradition I find very strange is easter. I come from Sweden and yes, there are a lot of other countries celebrating easter. But I find that tradition very weird. Why would we want a controlling rabbit make us look for candy? Isn't easter about celebrating Jesus Christ's resurrection and remembering his suffering? What do yellow chickens have to do with that? Another easter tradition is getting branches, putting them in a vase and then hanging colored feathers on them. I mean, how weird is that? We also dress up like witches and visit our neighbors to wish them a happy easter. What do witches have to do with the resurrection of Jesus Christ? Not that I'm a christian, but it does feel like us Swedes are just making things up to make easter sound fun. I don't even think easter is about having fun. My mom is a christian and she says we should mourn about Jesus's suffering and his death. Well, I haven't read a lot about easter. I'm just talking about my own experiences.

Another weird tradition from Sweden is midsummer. It's a time where we gather our people to raise something we call the midsummer pole. It's like a wooden cross, just like the christian cross, and it has one flower wreath on each "arm". Before we raise the pole, we drape it in flowers and leafs. And when we've raised it, we dance around it. To me it sounds like witchcraft. And that's not all there is. Some people even dress in the old traditional clothing with clogs and all. Even if it all sounds weird, I think we do it because of the solidarity. We want to keep together (in a non-racist way!!!) and I guess we want to keep being informed about our country's past. I think it's a good thing, because we're having fun. With strangers even, and that's a big step for a Swede!

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16 users have voted.
wmandan's picture
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Just as alot of other people that have posted comments here, I am Swedish. Really there are two celebrations that are unic for Sweden, or at least for Scandinavia, and those are midsummer and valborg (i don't really know how to translate that one. he direct translation would be ''Choice-castle'' but it has nothing to do with either of those words. In midsummer we celebrate the the day is at its longest and the night at its shortest. We do this by decorating a giant cross with rings underneath the horizontal log. It is decorated with leaves and flowers and the Swedish flag. We the dance around the cross, singing childish songs with different movements to them. It is also tradition to have different competitions during the day, like sack jumping or carrying a potato around on a spoon. During this celebration we eat herring and egg and potato, and drink A LOT of alcohol.
Valborg is a celebration in the fall where people gather around a huge campfire. According to the myth, the fire is to scare all the witches away.

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16 users have voted.
Mathii00's picture
36x
4x

In Sweden we have this celebration called ‘’midsommar’’ which you celebrate in June. In this celebration you dance around a ‘’tree’’ which is made of flowers and branches. It’s very usual that you play this game called ‘’5-kamp’’ which is a mix of 5 different games. You eat special food which consist herring, fresh potatoes and strawberries as a dessert.
In Sweden we also celebrate food on certain days. There are ‘’våffeldagen’’ which means the waffle day where you eat a lot of waffles. Then there is ‘’Fettisdagen’’ where you eat pastries who is called ‘’semlor’’. And as the final food-day you have ‘’kanelbullens dag’’ which means the day of cinnamon buns where you eat cinnamon buns. We’re a little bit odd with these traditions but I think they’re great because you get to eat food, and I love food.

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14 users have voted.
FeddiH's picture
146x
9x

The one celebration that personally enjoy the most is Midsummer. It's not only because of the long days and the bright sunlight. No, what I really like is dancing around a big phallic pole with a bunch of my friends and family, whilst singing about small frogs and my grandmother's crow. It may sound peculiar, but this is a fertility cult at it's very best! During this very enjoyable time we also eat pickled herring with eggs, sour cream and chives. Before hitting the sack, we pick seven different types of flowers and sneak them under our pillows. Thanks to the magic of the night, we then dream of our lover to be. Come visit Sweden, dear folk!

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15 users have voted.
plingrid's picture
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3x

In Sweden, we have Waffle day! It's an entire day dedicated to waffles and It's actually pretty big. Many people go out to cafes and have waffles with either jam or whipped cream. I love that tradition!

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12 users have voted.
agnesn's picture
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7x

Most people have already mentioned midsummer, but I think it's the biggest unusual celebration in Sweden. I don't know how it is for everyone else, but in my family we mainly eat the same kind of food that we eat around easter time. Other than the food, we dance around like frogs. During midsummer people tend to wear flower crowns as well.

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14 users have voted.
basket00's picture
26x
3x

I live in Sweden. We have a lot of wierd traditions. We have something called Midsommar or midsummer in English. Midsommar is in the end of june. We rise a big pole and dress it with flowers. Then we dance around it and sing songs. This dances are the wierdest dances. We pretend to be frogs, foxes and mouses. After we eat the same food as we eat on the christmas and easter. This is just one of all the strange traditions we have in Sweden.

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14 users have voted.
Samjo1's picture
34x
3x

Here in lund she have a thing called Tomanders christmas which basically is that you celebrate christmas like people did it 100 years ago.

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13 users have voted.
mux1911's picture
46x
4x

In Sweden we have a crazy tradition called midsummer. The thing you basically do is dancing round a midsummer pole, drinking booze and eating rotten fish.

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13 users have voted.
niastabes's picture
35x
3x

In sweden we have this unusual tradition where we eat fermented herring its called Surströmmingskiva. It is a group of people that can withstand the terrible smell and taste of the fermented fish and eat with thin crisp bread,onions and potatoes and served almost like sandwich.

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16 users have voted.
Pencilandpaper's picture
59x
4x

We have the common holidays like christmas and easter, that are celebrated abroad as well. But we have smaller "special days" for the craziest things. Waffles and cinnamon buns have their own day for example. We also have a week off från school in the autumn for potatoes and a day called bean sunday. I have no idea why cinnamon buns should have their own day, but hey, I don't complain when the buns cost 1 dollar a piece.

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12 users have voted.
Dugg's picture
156x
8x

In sweden there is a tradition that when you finish gymnasium you drink a lot of alcohol and party on truks and you go a round town singing. I think it is a really fun tradition and escpecially in Lund because its a university town so its a good atmospehre around thies celebrations. And when you'r done partying on the truck you often have a party at home.

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16 users have voted.
Noh8m8's picture
39x
5x

All traditions we have in Sweden are**** actually kind of strange, but some of them (like christmas and easter) is celebrated in other countries too. But not midsummer. Almost everybody here in this discussion has already written about midsummer and how strange it is. I totally agree! We dance like frogs around a big cross/pole decorated with flowers and eat eggs and fish. And if you put seven flowers of different kinds under your pillow you will dream about the person you will marry in the future. It acctually has some similarities with christmas (the food, the dancing and that you celebrate it with your familly).

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15 users have voted.
Daffodil4's picture
141x
8x

When you finish high school in Sweden, we have a tradition where the students get driven around on the back of a truck dressed in white dresses or suits. The city is full of trucks, loud music and screaming students at that time.

In Sweden we also have (as mentioned before) Midsummer and Walpurgis Night. Midsummer is at the end of June, always on a Friday to avoid car accidents in the morning the day after the feast when people otherwise would have driven to work. At Midsummer we dance around the maypole, sing traditional songs and we eat herring, potatoes and eggs just as we do on Christmas Eve.

The 30th of April is Walpurgis Night here in Sweden. Then we light a bonfire to celebrate that the winter is over and we sing songs about the coming spring. Nowadays the children roast marshmallows on the open fire.

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14 users have voted.
Wyvern's picture
41x
3x

Being from Sweden I shall try to not speak about midsummer(failed already) as many had already written about it. I shall instead talk about "the day of cinnamon buns". OK, I won't talk about it, will let you figure it out yourself

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16 users have voted.
Avalag's picture
34x
3x

The only thing that is special for sweden is midsummer I guess, we put up a pole, dance around it, and then you eat the same food as you do on easter and christmas eve. The holidays are quite samey in Sweden...

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14 users have voted.
I_love_9gag's picture
34x
4x

I live in sweden, in Lund to be exact.
Here in sweden we have some very weird holidays, the weirdest ones are called midsommar (midsummer) and Valborg.

On midsummer we build a giant cross and dresses it with flowers, then we dance around it. there are many of theories where the midsummer pole comes from, but i wont get into that.

The we have valborg, we drag twigs into a huge pile and lit it on fire, then we watch it burn (one of my personal favorites).

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16 users have voted.
esouth's picture
27x
3x

I'm from Sweden, and the only tradition I can of that is especially Swedish is midsummer. It actually comes from norse mythology, an I'm almost certain in the honour of the fertility gods, Frey and Freya. We sing songs and dance around a big pole, often decorated with flowers, in the shape of the male gentitals. We usually eat things that are considered "typically Swedish" (for examples meatballs, potatoes and salomon).

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15 users have voted.
daisybuchanan's picture
152x
9x

I'm from Lund, Sweden, and I think that the most Swedish holiday that I know of is midsummer - midsommar in Swedish. It's usually celebrated around the end of June, because that's around the longest day of the year. There's a lot of different traditions connected to the Swedish midsummer, but the most "classic" one is that we dance around a pole pretending to be frogs. Children, or sometimes people in their early to mid teens, often place seven different kinds of flowers beneath their pillows to earn luck and dream about their true love.

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17 users have voted.

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