Last month marked the ten-year anniversary of the death of Martiniquan politician and poet Aimé Césaire. Césaire’s achievements are sometimes overshadowed by other influential writers of his generation, such as Frantz Fanon. As a result, the importance of his work is sometimes forgotten. This is not the case in Martinique. Césaire’s life is celebrated all over this overseas department of France, where he was born and worked as a politician and writer. Everywhere you look you can find a tribute to Césaire, from the international airport named after him to his inspiring quotes colourfully painted across the walls of the island’s capital city Fort de France.
But when speaking to some of my students about him the other day, I was surprised to find that many of them knew who he was, but had no idea what his values were and why the legacy he left behind is so important. So it seems fitting, on the ten-year anniversary of his death, to remind ourselves who Aimé Césaire was and why he is a key figure in Martinique’s fascinating history.
Born in 1913, Césaire grew up in a Martinique that had long been a colony of France. In school, he developed a passion for French poetry, as well as a keen interest in Martinique’s Creole culture, which is influenced by the African roots of the majority of its population. When Césaire moved to Paris as a student, he discovered a thriving movement of black intellectualism. Along with some friends also born in the French colonies of the West Indies and of black African descent, he created L’Étudiant Noir, a student magazine celebrating black culture and heritage. It was in this magazine that Césaire also expressed for the first time his concept of Negritude, a movement that sought to restore the cultural identity of black Africans. Césaire would use the Negritude movement to advocate for black rights throughout his career. On returning to Martinique in 1939, he served as the mayor of Fort de France for decades, where he influenced many people on the importance of black rights. He also got his message across through his poetry, using it as a tool to educate people on the importance of black rights and identity.
Césaire was a leading figure in the movement for black consciousness. He inspired generations of future black pride activists and writers around the world, and continues to inspire them today. And so, ten years since his death, we should encourage today’s younger generations to learn more about Aimé Césaire and remember him with the respect he really deserves.
What do you think we can learn from Aimé Césaire?