Sophie has taken Oliver on a special trip for his birthday.

We use the, the definite article, before a singular or plural noun. We use the to show people that they know (or they will soon know) what we are talking about.

Can you explain with examples?

Of course. The definite article, the, can refer backwards in a conversation or text to something already mentioned.

… my sister there hid a little parcel in my suitcase, so when I was unpacking the case I had a really cool surprise ...

It can also refer forwards to something which is going to be mentioned or explained.

Could you bring me the knife which you gave me?
The friend of hers who's looking after us ...

Does the always refer backwards or forwards?

No, it can also refer to shared knowledge or general knowledge. Both the listener and the speaker (or the writer and the reader) know what is being referred to.

But I'll try to connect from the hotel every evening.
I think Mum is hoping to see George Clooney at the bus stop.

OK, I understand those rules, but I’ve seen lists of different uses of the.

All right, I can give more specific examples, but they fit into the three areas I’ve given you. We use the when there is only one of something (in the world, the country, your town, the house, etc.), and we know what it is.

And is the internet connection good?
They're like ... like the poster you've got in your room, Daisy.

We use the with superlatives – again, we are talking about one thing.

The chocolate here is the best in the world.

With some adjectives which refer to one thing –  for example first, last, next –  we also use the.

… this is the third day ...

When referring forwards, we often use a relative clause.

That’s the friend who is looking after us.

Isn’t the used with musical instruments, like 'I play the guitar'?

Yes, we sometimes use the in fixed expressions for musical instruments, entertainment and transport.

He plays the piano brilliantly. 
They’re going to the opera tonight. (also: the cinema, the football, the shops, etc.)
We took a taxi to the airport. (also: the bus stop, the station, etc.)

So even if there are three cinemas in my town, I would still say 'I went to the cinema last night'?

Yes, you would. We also sometimes use the to talk about groups of people or types of animals or things in general.

The unemployed are asking for more help from the government. (also: the poor, the old, the homeless, the deaf, etc.)
The wolf is the largest member of the dog family. (formal)
The Swiss watch is an amazing piece of engineering.

And we can use the with nationalities, like 'The Swiss make great chocolate'?

Yes, that’s right. You're good at this!    

What about talking about things in general? Can I say 'The life is very expensive' or 'I love the sport'?

No, we don’t use the definite article to generalise about abstract things. You’d say: 'Life is very expensive' and 'I love sport'. If we’re generalising about things we usually use the plural form (for countable nouns) or singular (uncountable nouns).

She’s frightened of spiders. (= spiders in general)
Lasagne is delicious! (= lasagne in general)
Thanks for dinner. The lasagne was incredible! (= one particular lasagne)

But you used 'the wolf' earlier to talk about wolves in general.

Yes, but that was more formal language, for example what you would read in an encyclopaedia. We usually use no article to generalise.

What about geography words? Words for rivers and seas and things?

Ah, you mean proper nouns or names of things. Here are some categories where we use the, with examples:
Rivers: the Thames
Mountain ranges: the Alps
Oceans and seas: the Pacific / the Red Sea
Deserts: the Sahara
Islands (groups): the Bahamas
Countries if + political term / plural: the UK / the USA / the United Arab Emirates
Political institutions: the Government / the Monarchy
Newspapers (usually part of the title): The Times / The Guardian
Cinemas / theatres / hotels: the Odeon / the Holiday Inn

So we don't use the before lakes, forests, cities or towns?

No, not usually. And not usually before streets in towns.

Well, there’s more to the definite article than meets the eye!

Mm, that reminds me, more than meets the eye – there are a lot of idioms with the too. For another time!



Have you ever visited a different country? What did you see? What differences did you notice between there and home?


Ema_tavo's picture
Ema_tavo 31 August, 2021 - 13:39

Yes I have, I've been to England and Spain. Spain was really interesting, In my opinion it's one of the best European countries. I had so much fun.

1 user has voted.
FlowerQueen's picture
FlowerQueen 11 July, 2021 - 15:11

Yes, I often visited different countries. In South Korea I always see my family and the sea, we almost go every year there. The difference between South Korea and Germany are that we speak German here, almost all houses have a garden here and there in Korea it is always not easy to find the right way, because the apartments look like all the same.
When I was about six years old, we went to Italy for four times. I saw other people, the sea and plants and animals. The differences between Germany and Italy are that there they speak Italian, it is really hot in summer in Italy and the food is really tasty.
We also go to Austria for one or two times a year. I always see hills, hills and more hills. Sometimes some people who want to go on a hill. Children who want to visit a hill. The difference between Germany and Austria are that in Austria there are many hills, I can make friends there, because my parents go walking on a hill while I am in a Club for children and there is more snow in winter. We go to Austria in summer to walk on a hill and in winter to ski.

3 users have voted.
Arivelde's picture
Arivelde 23 March, 2021 - 19:10

Yes I did, in these different countries we can see the different types of architeture, languages, culture, each one of them has their own magical characteristics brought by history, for me that is beautiful. The differences between these places and home are the people, diferent and divercified. Where I live, in the county-side there is not much human contat, so the more people I know from elsewhere , the more I remember the place.

1 user has voted.
Cfvdv's picture
Cfvdv 16 March, 2021 - 19:19

Yes I have visited other countries, I saw diferent foods, diferent cultures, diferent languages. And it´s very interesting to know about other places and cultures. The biggest difference that I have noticed was the language, but when people are friendly, we can always understand eachother.

1 user has voted.
Didik's picture
Didik 11 March, 2021 - 22:14

Yes, I like visiting other countryies. I see different cultures, different people, different food. For instance, in Portugal they eat fig, they eat sardines, they eat different nuts. These things we don´t eat in my country.

2 users have voted.
Zat's picture
Zat 22 May, 2020 - 01:54

Only once I have gone to France, the customs are different starting with the way of greeting, and hygiene, I really liked the warmth of the people, I think that made me feel at home, the difference was notably pizza and transportation Public, I really liked my visit to the Jardin de la Virgen de La Salette.

1 user has voted.
BttChiara's picture
BttChiara 19 May, 2020 - 18:18

Yes, I went to France once. I visited the Tour Eiffel with my family. I really like it! There weren't difference from my country, we only talk a different language, but we are all the same.

1 user has voted.
MatildePace's picture
MatildePace 26 March, 2020 - 15:59

Yes I visited another country. I have visited many places, including London in England. The differences that I have noticed are the different language, the different style of life, a different culture and the food.

1 user has voted.
Desy's picture
Desy 26 March, 2020 - 14:38

Yes, last summer I visited Spain and France. The differences I noticed between there and home are many; for example in Spain and France people are very smiling and cheerful, and in Italy many people often don't smile and look very sad. In Spain and France they laugh and they are more friendly.

1 user has voted.
gattifederica's picture
gattifederica 25 March, 2020 - 15:26

Yes, I have. I went to Oxford with my best friend last summer. I saw the centre of the city, the castle and some museums like Ashmolean Museum and History of Science Museum. The differences are: in England the drive is on the right, while in Italy is the opposite; they eat more for breakfast and its mainly salty; the British have dinner early.

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Ely's picture
Ely 25 March, 2020 - 13:43

i have visited two different country.first i visited Paris in France when i was 5 years and the next year i visited Fussen in Germany and i didn't see any different between them and home.

1 user has voted.
Youjiro's picture
Youjiro 1 February, 2019 - 12:59

I have visited two different country .First I visited Hawaii when I was high school .Secondly I visited Hong Kong five year ago. I realize a lot of difference in two country .In Hawaii ,There are so many beautiful beach.Hawaiian food is difference from my country.They mainly eat bread with meal .

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giorgia_marchetti's picture
giorgia_marchetti 25 March, 2020 - 14:37

I've visited the England but there isn't many different but, in England there are more technology things than in Italy.

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